NEW FORCES IN THE WORLD'S LIFE 75
instinct has always been present in humanity,
an evidence of its participation in the fallen state
of the world. Personal originality in thought
or conscience or creativity was always the rare
inheritance of a few. The primitive clans with
their totetnistic cults lived under the sign of
the collective, in them personality had not yet
awakened, and the border between personality
and the social group had not been recognized.
Many of the taboos which fill the civilized epoch
of history are inheritances from this primitive
herd instinct, this primeval collective.
Throughout all his history man has lived in
collectives, family, tribal, .national, state or
military; collectives of class or caste, of pro-
fession or of religion. And man has always
thought and judged in tune with the conscious-
ness of the collective to which he belonged.
Thought was rarely personal; it was usually
tribal or family thought. Thought has been
on the basis of caste, the profession, the tribe.
The average soldier thinks differently from the
average civilian; the average Frenchman from the
average German. The average noble or bour-
geois thinks differently from the average peasant,
the average doctor differently from the average
lawyer. Personal originality rising above the
family or class level has always been a rarity. It is
a mistake to think that in the individualist epoch,